Publications

Please note that here you can find our publications with an English abstract. For a complete list of publications, please refer to our German section.

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IfM-Materialien

The Future Panel on SMEs 2017 – An updated Expert Survey on the Challenges for the German Mittelstand

Digital transformation is a challenge for the Mittelstand which affects many different management and policy fields. This is a key result of the current expert survey for the Mittelstand future panel 2017.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

The impact of curricular career orinentation and preparation programs on career choices of high school students.

Students' process of choosing an occupation and career path is of a significant importance, individually as well as socio-economically. Therefore there are lots of efforts made by several parties to inform young people about a preferably large scale of different occupational paths and to encourage them to make a well informed and reflected decision.

Abstract Publisher

Working Papers

Business takeovers and firm growth: Empirical evidence from a German panel

The present article links business takeovers to the literature on serial autocorrelation of growth rates. The aim of the study is to identify the effects of successions on the performance of small German firms by analysing the growth pathways over a period of eight years after business takeover. Using panel data from 1,872 firms, the present article shows that for the first two years after a business takeover, small firms are subject to negative serial correlation of growth rates regarding employment. The analysis underlines the importance of longitudinal data to provide evidence on changes in the behaviour of a firm following a business takeover.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Context and Entrepreneurial Cognition

All of us have an idea of context, however vague, but our perceptions on what constitutes context differ heavily: from very detailed to rather vague assumptions.

Abstract Publisher

IfM-Materialien

Global networks, co-operation and value production in the German Mittelstand

Based on theoretical analyses and additional in-depth expert interviews, the present study investigates the challenges and opportunities faced by Mittelstand companies when participating in (global) value chains.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Entrepreneurial behaviour in the course of business succession

Using data of the IAB-establishment panel, the paper analyses entrepreneurial behaviour before and after business succession and how this behaviour affects the economic situation of the enterprises being handed over.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Business Process Digitization of SME in the Manufacturing Sector

This study empirically examines the degree to which companies digitized their business processes. The investigation is based on a representative sample covering 1,400 firms in the manufacturing sector in North Rhine-Westphalia, Bavaria, and Baden-Wuerttemberg.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

External Publication

Come on out of the ghetto, please - Building the future of entrepreneurship research

This essay makes the argument that previously marginalized but now flourishing subfields of entrepreneurship research continue to provide insights that can form the basis for future entrepreneurship research that is more broadly practical and critical.

Abstract Publisher

External Publication

The interaction of equity crowdfunding platforms and ventures: an analysis of the preselection process

A growing number of young and emerging businesses obtain financial resources through open calls over the Internet. Such campaigns are often hosted on specialised platforms that serve as intermediaries between founders and potential funders. In recent years, equity crowdfunding platforms in particular have had remarkably high success rates in these published campaigns.

Abstract Publisher

External Publication

Do unfair perceived own pay and top managers’ pay erode satisfaction with democracy?

Many people are relatively unsatisfied with the democratic system as it currently exists.

Abstract Publisher

Daten und Fakten

Internationalisation of small and medium sized service industry enterprises as reflected by (official) data sources

The German trade in services continuously expands since 2001. So far unknown was the extent to which SMEs in the service sector participate in this trade.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

The largest family businesses in Germany - update of key figures 2016

The study analyses the balance sheets and P&L statements of largest German family businesses (with at least 50 million Euro turnover per year) between 2012 and 2015. 

Abstract Full Version

Working Papers

Individual and Structural Influences on the Entrepreneurial Activities of Academics

In this paper we study how and to what extend (i) individual working conditions (e.g. peers, working atmosphere, work contract incentives, wage satisfaction), (ii) institutions (e.g. technology transfer offices, patent exploitation agencies, chair in entrepreneurship or awards for academic entrepreneurship) and (iii) network relationships simultaneously affect the likelihood of engaging in entrepreneurial activities (nascent entrepreneurship) in academia.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

"Mittelstand" Policies in practice - Business framework policy or funding policy?

This study elaborates elements of a future-oriented policy targeting the Mittelstand and addresses the German Länder as policy actors.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Economic effects of the amendment to the HwO in 2004: Results from a quasinatural experiment

The amendment to the regulation of the craft sector in Germany in 2004 led to lower market entry barriers for a part of the craft sector.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Women´s Entrepreneurship in Global and Local Contexts

The phenomenon of women´s entrepreneurship has gained significant momentum across the globe.

Abstract Publisher

External Publication

Everyday Entrepreneurship A Call for Entrepreneurship Research to Embrace Entrepreneurial Diversity

The authors of the publication argue that a wider and nondiscriminatory perspective on what constitutes entrepreneurship will lead to better theory and more insights that are relevant to the phenomenon.

Abstract Publisher

Working Papers

Fine Artists' Entrepreneurial Business Environment

This paper aims to illustrate the working and business environment of professional fine artists and to identify the factors to successfully make a living in the arts as both market challenges and success factors have not yet been clearly identified in literature.

Abstract Full Version

Working Papers

Digitalization in the German radio specialized trade - Recommendations to the opportunities of Change Management on the basis of a current empirical research

The current Working Paper of the IfM Bonn recommends courses of action to solve the problem of a new
positioning of the German radio specialist suppliers.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

"The 21st century is female" – Women Entrepreneurs in the daily press

The present study examines how the daily press in Germany contributes to presenting and spreading role models for women entrepreneurs.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Wandering between Contexts

There is a great variety of entrepreneurship which is not only influenced by the individual activities of the entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is also affected by the contexts in which a business is started or run.

Abstract Publisher

Working Papers

Inventions and their Commercial Exploitation in Academic Institutions: Analysing Determinants Among Academics

Institutions of higher education are considered as an important source of innovation. Consequently, big efforts are made to facilitate technology transfer from academia into the market. However, technology transfer at German universities does not seem to live up to its full potential.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Major family businesses in Germany - spring survey 2016 II

The study presents the results of the 2016 spring survey of major German family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros. This second chartbook focuses particularly on internationalisation of the these firms.

Abstract Full Version

Working Papers

Determinants of hidden champions - Evidence from Germany

Our explorative study analyses the factors that affect the likelihood of German companies to be a hidden champion.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Once entrepreneur, forever entrepreneur? Self-employment during the course of working life

The present study analyses the employment biographies of self-employed of different birth cohorts. The results show that most self-employed have only one self-employment episode in their life and a great percentage of them remains permanently self-employed.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Major family businesses in Germany - spring survey 2016

The study presents the results of the 2016 spring survey of major German family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

The Challenges of Industry 4.0 for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

Despite the enormous economic potential of Industry 4.0 SMEs in industry remain relatively cautious about it. With regard to individual Industry 4.0 processes and technologies, however, it appears that across the board, regardless of company size and branch, little use is made of the evaluation of large data streams to optimise processes or for downstream services.

Abstract Publisher

Working Papers

Gender Diversity in Top-Management Positions in Large Family and Nonfamily Businesses

(Why) does the sex ratio in top-management positions in large family and nonfamily businesses differ? Using a unique data set and estimating (fractional) logit regressions we show that the female share in top-management positions in family businesses exceeds the one in nonfamily businesses.

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External Publication

Economies in a globalized world - Family businesses in Germany

As regards business activities, family businesses are commonly considered to behave more risk-averse than companies led by managers. In fact, they are willing to take risks.

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External Publication

Destination: self-employment

The self-employment figures in Germany will likely stagnate or may even decline, given recent demographic changes. This development provides the impetus of this thesis. To counteract this, it needs to mitigate individuals’ reservations to take up entrepreneurial activity. This thesis argues that comprehensive information about the typical characteristics of foundings could sensitise individuals toward entrepreneurial activity, induce aspiring entrepreneurs to realise their entrepreneurial ambitions and, moreover, help to increase these foundings’ prospects of success.

Abstract

IfM-Materialien

"Mittelstand" Policies in Change

The German Mittelstand has been undergoing considerable change for several years now. In the light of a new self-perception of the Mittelstand, policies targeting the Mittelstand should adjust accordingly.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Fast growing businesses in Germany: The characteristics and determinants of their growth

On the basis of survey data, this study analyses the pivotal characteristics of fast growing firms with 10 employees at minimum as well as the determinants of their growth. The smaller ones, companies at the early stages of the life cycle and the ones located in the manufacturing sector belong to this specific group of companies.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Supporting Women Entrepreneurs in Germany

The report presents a brief overview of current and planned support for women’s entrepreneurship in Germany and provides an assessment of current and planned offerings in the areas of entrepreneurship skills, access to finance and the regulatory and institutional environment.

Abstract Publisher

External Publication

Entrepreneur in Germany

Entrepreneurship has been linked to patriarchal families for a long time. But the history shows that it is not necessary to be born as an entrepreneur.

Abstract Publisher

Daten und Fakten

Information and data sources regarding financial structures of small and medium-sized enterprises in Germany

The ongoing discussing on financing and the equity base of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Germany increasingly focuses on potential sources of debt financing, new methods of funding, and thereby on the general framework for bank borrowings to SMEs.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Commercial exploitation of inventions among academics at German institutions of higher education

University-level institutions are an important source of innovations. However, there are a lot of inventions of academics at German universities, which are not transferred into a commercial use. We analysed how academics' characteristics, working conditions, and the institutional context affect the likelihood to innovate and commercialize their inventions.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

Working Papers

Crucial Skills for the Entrepreneurial Success of Fine Artists

This article aims to define crucial skills for the entrepreneurial success of working fine artists as these skills have not yet been clearly identified for this professional group.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Keeping It in The Family: Financial Rewards in Family Firms

Financial rewards in entrepreneurial families show specific characteristics: they are uncertain with regard to volume and timing; they are negotiable between the firm and the family; they are invisible because they include both cash and goods/services that can be consumed; and they are indivisible because family and business budgets are closely interlinked even if commonly seen as separate entities.

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External Publication

SMEs, independent, family business: A clarification

For the affiliation of an enterprise to the Mittelstand his size is not decisive.

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External Publication

Family Business and Regional Science: Bridging the gap

The article discusses not only the role family firms play within the region in order to enhance our understanding of the ways family firms may (or may not) contribute to regional economic development but also the effect of socio-spatial and institutional context on firm behavior and performance.

Abstract Publisher

IfM-Materialien

Financial structures and financing strategies of German SMEs

The financial environment for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is changing. The general good economic situation, the current policy on low interest rates and new banking regulations affect the capital structure of German SMEs.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Entrepreneurship and Crowdinvesting

Equity-crowdinvesting was launched in Germany in the year 2011. This funding source enables young and emerging businesses to gather funding by addressing numerous private investors via an open-call. Our examination of 163 funding rounds reveals that the German crowdinvesting market sharply increased in the first years.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

Selbstständigen-Monitor

Self-employment monitor 2014

Using data of the German Microcensus, this report analyses the development of self-employment and start-ups in Germany between 2011 und 2014. The total number of self-employed persons decreased in the period under observation from 5 011 000 to 4 947 000.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Major family businesses in Germany - 6th update of key figures

The study analyses the balance sheets and P&L statements of major German family businesses between 2011 and 2013. It thereby shows the development of key figures such as turnover, employment, equity and debt ratios.

Abstract Full Version

Daten und Fakten

Start-ups of foreign citizens

In the years 2004 to 2014, foreign citizens increasingly influenced the start-up activities in Germany as well as in Northrhine-Westfalia. Foreign founders played a prominent role in the trade and a lesser one in the liberal professions.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Relevance of the Digitalization for the German Mittelstand

The study on predominantly small- and medium-sized companies reveals that they are highly aware of the relevance of digitalization. International-oriented companies attach even more importance to digitalization.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Context, Process and Gender in Entrepreneurship

The book provides a particular focus on the behaviour between individuals and groups within different contexts; the personal and structural factors that shape entrepreneurial and small business activity; and a focus on gender in entrepreneurship within different contexts.

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External Publication

Researching Trust in Different Cultures

Trust is not an ´objective´ phenomenon that can be measured easily and understood across cultures and countries. Trust, in particular its understanding and interpretation, is also a socially constructed and context-dependent phenomenon, which renders its measurement and empirical analysis difficult.

Abstract Publisher

IfM-Materialien

Sales growth and growth thresholds in German firms

The description of sales growth and possible growth thresholds is the main objective of this study. Smaller firms are shown to grow at a faster rate than larger ones.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Young firm growth dynamics– a longitudinal analysis with German sales tax data

We study the growth patterns of newly founded firms in their first seven years based on the German Turnover Tax Statistics Panel 2001-2010.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

External Publication

Engine of success - the German SME sector in focus

The researchers of Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn analysed and evaluated German mid market companies with an annual revenue of EUR 20 million up to EUR 1 billion. The study is conducted on commission of GE Capital Deutschland.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

BDI PwC SME Panel: Results of the online SME Survey - Spring 2015

Already for the 21st time, the IfM Bonn has asked a permanent group of industrial enterprises about their economic situations, topical and managerial issues. The Spring Survey 2015, that comprises 914 companies, lays focus upon the fourth industrial revolution.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Developing entrepreneurial personality potentials - An empirical analysis in upper secondary education

The paper presents a planned intervention study in panel design that focusses on the development of entrepreneurial potential within a curricularly implemented entrpereneurhip education in German secondary schools. 

Abstract

IfM-Materialien

The Future Panel on SMEs – Challenges for the German Mittelstand from the Entrepreneurs' Point of View

This paper complements our expert survey on the challenges for the German Mittelstand in 2014 (The IfM Bonn Future Panel on SMEs) by taking into consideration the entrepreneurs' point of view.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

Working Papers

Family-related employment interruptions and self-employment of women: Does policy matter?

This paper analyzes how statutory entitlements to maternity or parental leave affect female entry into self-employment after childbirth. For our estimations we use comprehensive panel data for German adults born between 1944 and 1989.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Effort provision in entrepreneurial teams: effects of team size, free-riding and peer pressure

This paper analyzes whether effort provision in entrepreneurial teams depends on the size of the team, assuming that size determines the strength of free-riding and peer pressure effects in entrepreneurial teams.

Abstract Publisher

Daten und Fakten

Start-ups in the liberal professions in Germany and its Regions in 2014

Based on statistical data provided by tax authorities, the number of business start-ups in the liberal professions has been calculated. In 2014, approx. 81,100 start-ups have been recorded in the liberal professions. The number of start-ups in the liberal professions has increased in the years 2012 to 2014, while the number of start-ups in the branches of commerce and industry has declined.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

Value for Whom? Exploring the Value of Informal Entrepreneurial Activities in Post-Socialist Contexts

The analysis offers important insights on how three institutional logics – market, state and community – guide entrepreneurial action at the micro-level and affect value creation.

Abstract Publisher

External Publication

The largest family businesses in Germany, data, facts, potential - spring survey 2015

The study presents the results of the 2015 Spring Survey of major family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros.

Abstract Full Version

Working Papers

The Entrepreneurial Value of Arts Incubators: Why Fine Artists Should Make Use of Professional Arts Incubators

The study’s aim is to show whether and to what extent services of entrepreneurial value will be provided by arts incubators to nurture fine artists to meet market requirements to make a living in the arts.

Abstract Full Version

Daten und Fakten

The commercial start-up activity in the service sector

Using IfM Bonn’s business start-up statistics (person related data) this paper analyzes the commercial start-up activities (excluding liberal professions) in the service sector. In 2013 almost three quarters of all business start-ups took place in the service sector, which was therefore fewer than in 1998.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Opportunities and risks of CSR for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

The study highlights both the opportunities and risks related to the application of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) as a corporate strategy. The analysis identifies a number of risks such as greenwashing, systemizing its forms and manifestations and categorizing them.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

External Publication

The demise of a model? The state of collective bargaining and worker representation

This article investigates collective bargaining trends in the German private sector since 2000. Using data from the IAB Establishment Panel and the German Establishment History Panel, it provides both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence on these developments.

Abstract Publisher

Working Papers

Creative Forces for Entrepreneurship: The Role of Institutional Change Agents

The paper reviews the current discussion on institutional change and institutional entrepreneurship. Specifically, it focuses on institutional change agents, by which we mean individuals whose actions can be shown to have contributed to formal or informal institutional change, to the benefit of the wider economy or society as well as to themselves. It aims to explore their antecedents and behaviours, and the contingent factors contributing to institutional change, both intentionally and unintentionally.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

The Economic Contribution of Start-Up Firms in Germany

This paper utilizes German tax data to present evidence about the direct and indirect effcts of new firm formation. Cohort analysis is applied to investigate survival, sales, inputs, and value added of start-up firms. Most drop-outs occur in the early years.

Abstract

External Publication

To influence the gender of the submitter to the choice of intra-household hereinafter

This paper examines the decision of female and male incumbents to choose a daughter or a son as successor and strives for answering the question, which factors determine this decision. Thereby, the main focus lies on the influence of incumbent’s gender. Different theoretical approaches give hints that the incumbent’s gender can have different impacts on this choice.

Abstract Publisher

IfM-Materialien

Business development of large family and non-family enterprises – an analysis of financial statement data between 2008 and 2012

In general, family businesses are often supposed to have a bigger share in the stabilisation of the economic development in Germany after the last financial crisis than non-family businesses. Our study examines this hypothesis with regard to large family enterprises, using a self-generated database, which also allows for comparisons with large non-family businesses.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

German Mittelstand - Between Facts and Perceptions

In recent years, the entrepreneurial landscape has been subject to structural change which also impacts on the German Mittelstand. This study explores key characteristics of the Mittelstand, drawing on a business survey.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Mittelstand Companion and Promotor of Structural Change

The term "Mittelstand" is a typical German label for a large part of the German enterprise population. Outside German-speaking countries, the term "SME" is more frequently used instead. Do both terms describe the same phenomenon? We analyze the terms and definitions of Mittelstand and SME as well as enterprise, entrepreneur and self-employment which are fundamental for the understanding of Mittelstand.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Individual and Structural Influences on the Entrepreneurial Activities of Scientists in German Universities

Knowledge of great commercial value is unexploited in universities. Thus, policy makers have started to foster knowledge transfer activities by incentivizing academic entrepreneurship. To date, however, little is known whether the incentives provided so far by the universities have raised the start-up inclination of their scientific staff.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

External Publication

Measuring the regulatory environment for SMEs – The case of Germany

In an increasingly complex global economy, the daily business activities of all enterprises are affected by a huge number of regulations in many different fields. This report provides an overview about the temporal and financial regulatory burdens, particularly of small and medium-sized enterprises.

Abstract

External Publication

Family successors´ requirement profiles in the family business succession process

This article analyzes the requirements that family successors must fulfill to be considered suitable successors from three perspectives. We identify the recommended attributes and exigencies of family successors in the literature, generate a general requirement profile and compare this profile with predecessors’ expectations and successors’ perceptions of requirements based on data extracted from 106 interviews with 53 families. 

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External Publication

Advancing theory development in venture creation: signposts for understanding gender

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) shows that 126 million women in 67 economies started and managed businesses in 2012. 

Abstract Publisher

IfM-Materialien

The Impact of the Employment History on Women's Start-up Activities

Despite a steady increase in the number of self-employed women, the so-called gender gap has hardly diminished. Based on the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), the present study analyses if and to which extent, family-induced employment breaks – which from a theoretical perspective go along with a loss of human capital – explain women's lower start-up propensities.

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

The Routledge Companion to Entrepreneurship

Research in entrepreneurship has been booming, with perspectives from a range of disciplines and numerous developing schools of thought. It can be difficult for young scholars and even long-time researchers to find their way through the lush garden of ideas we see before us.

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External Publication

Demo offensiv – aggressive use of demographic change for the middle class

The demographic change causes a need for new approaches towards better work atmosphere and more trust in the workplace: this includes, among others, the visions and behavior of managers as well as education and training of workers on-the-job.

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External Publication

Entrepreneurship in Emerging Market Economies: Contemporary Issues and Perspectives

Entrepreneurship increasingly is becoming a global phenomenon, although its nature, extent and contribution to economic development varies according to the context in which it occurs.

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External Publication

Enterprising families in a cross-border context: the example of Belarus

This chapter explores the nature of simple entrepreneurial cross-border activity in one of the harshest environments for entrepreneurship in the world, namely Belarus, where private business activity is tolerated rather than encouraged. 

Abstract Publisher

External Publication

From the advanced transition environment to the international markets: key opportunities and challenges for MADARA cosmetics

Due in large measure to its favourable geographical location, Latvia has historically attracted the interest of many countries, mostly in the neighbouring area. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Latvia regained its independence and became a parliamentary republic on 21 August 1991.

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Working Papers

Sustainable Management and Performance in SMEs: A French Case Study

Nowadays, sustainable management seems more likely to be a guarantee of competitiveness for companies, regardless of their size. Besides offering those strategic opportunities, sustainable management practices also play a significant role in gaining acceptance and legitimacy in the marketplace. Moreover, SMEs are continually researching ways to improve their performance. 

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IfM-Materialien

The Future Panel on SMEs – An Expert Survey on the Challenges for the German Mittelstand

Changing demographics, globalization, scarcity of resources, climate change and dynamic technology and innovation will affect small and medium sized enterprises in Germany (Mittelstand companies). In order to identify and evaluate actual challenges and upcoming topics an internet-based survey of experts which comprised representatives of politics, business and academia – the so called IfM Bonn Future Panel on SMEs – was conducted.

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External Publication

On the way to gender-specific models for entrepreneurship research

The number of female entrepreneurs is growing rapidly all over the world as they make an essential contribution to employment, innovation and the economic growth. 

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Working Papers

Works Councils in Family Businesses in Germany – why are there so few?

Works councils are an inherent part of the German economic and social system. An analysis of the prevalence of works councils in Germany reveals that they are not uniformly distributed across all types of businesses. Works councils occur less frequently in owner-managed businesses – regardless of their size – than in companies run by employed managers.

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External Publication

Women and Work

North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is one of the leading economic regions in Europe. 22.1% of Germany's gross domestic product is generated here. Furthermore around 761,000 (99.6%) small and medium enterprises dominate the industry in NRW. It's importance is reflected not only in the key sectors of energy, chemicals, metal and the automotive industry, but also in business services.

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External Publication

Engine of Success – The German Mid-Market under the Spotlight

The researcher of Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn have analysed and evaluated mid market companies with an annual revenue of between EUR 20 million and EUR 1 billion in Germany for the study "Engine of Success – The German Mid-Market under the Spotlight" conducted on commission by GE Capital Deutschland.

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External Publication

The Effect of Working Time Preferences and Fair Wage Perceptions on Entrepreneurial Intentions among Employees

To date, little is known about how working time preferences and fair wage perceptions affect employees’ entrepreneurial intentions. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we provide first evidence that the difference between the actual and desired amount of working hours in paid employment is positively related to the propensity to switch to self-employment.

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External Publication

Why the Self-Employed are happier: Evidence from 25 European Countries

Abstract

Working Papers

The Economic Contribution of Start-Up Firms in Germany

This paper utilizes German tax data to present evidence about the direct and indirect effcts of new firm formation. Cohort analysis is applied to investigate survival, sales, inputs, and value added of start-up firms. Most drop-outs occur in the early years. 

Abstract Full Version

External Publication

My Wage is Unfair! Just a Feeling or Comparison with Peers?

This paper analyzes the nexus between income comparisons and perceptions of unfair pay. We apply a large German household survey and conduct wage regressions to conclude whether individuals who perceive their wages as unfair earn significantly lower wages than fairly paid individuals with similar characteristics.

Abstract Publisher

IfM-Materialien

Incomes of self-employed and claiming of public benefits based on Social Code II

This study investigates the income of self-employed based on the panel "Labour Markets and Social Security” of the Institute of Employment Research, Nuremberg. The analysis focuses on the socio-economic characteristics of self-employed and attempts to explain why some of them are entitled to a means-tested benefit called Unemployment Benefit II.

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External Publication

Social sustainability of cooperatives in traditional crafts

The project "Social sustainability of community Co-operatives in traditional handcraft" focusses on the function and the working processes of community-based and foundation-based Co-operatives in traditional textile handcrafts in rural berber regions around Marrakesh with a special consideration of the regional cultural context. 

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External Publication

How Exactly Do Network Relationships Pay Off? The Effects of Network Size and Relationship Quality on Access to Start-Up Resources

Entrepreneurs are expected to profit from network relationships. Research addressing the link between entrepreneurs' network characteristics and their performance, however, has so far produced inconclusive results. 

Abstract Publisher

Working Papers

The gendering of entrepreneurship context

The paper builds on the understanding of context as suggested by Welter (2011) who introduced different dimensions of context along a continuum of where entrepreneurship takes place and when this happens. Where context has been studied in relation to gender and women, the focus has been on the influence of social contexts such as networks, family and household embeddedness of women entrepreneurs or the institutional environment for women’s entrepreneurship.

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IfM-Materialien

Concepts and Effects of Sustainable Management

Sustainability aims at a responsible use of natural resources and the environment as well as at shaping corporate relations and restructuring the constitution of the firm. 

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IfM-Materialien

Gender, Innovation and Firm Performance

In innovation research, there is a wide-spread notion that women in general and women entrepreneurs in particular are less innovative than their male counterparts. This is often associated with a weaker performance of women-led firms. Our study shows that this notion is based on a limited definition and examination of innovation. 

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External Publication

From idea to publication: managing the research process

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External Publication

Contextualizing Entrepreneurship - Conceptual Challenges and Ways Forward

There is growing recognition in entrepreneurship research that economic behavior can be better understood within its historical, temporal, institutional, spatial, and social contexts, as these contexts provide individuals with opportunities and set boundaries for their actions.

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External Publication

The student company. Didactic Guide for starting a business

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External Publication

Dynamics in ICT cooperation networks in selected German ICT Clusters

High innovation capability is indispensable for generating economic growth in developed economies. Cooperations in the innovation process are entered into by companies for reasons of risk diversification or costs and often considered to be an efficient strategy to increase a company’s knowledge basis.

Abstract

IfM-Materialien

SMEs in the Information and Communication Sector in North Rhine-Westphalia

The objective of the study is to analyse the ICT sector in North Rhine-Westphalia, using the most recent census data available as well as the results of an own survey. This German federal state proves to be the home of a mainly prosperous ICT firm-population. 

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External Publication

Costs of bureaucracy in SME

The smaller a company is, the more time it spends on dealing with regulatory tasks. From a macroeconomic view, however, it is important to create positive conditions for any company size.

Abstract

Daten und Fakten

Business successions in Germany 2014 to 2018

Due to a lack of data from official statistics, IfM Bonn regularly estimates (since the mid 1990s) the number of enterprises which are to be transferred to new owners. 

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Welfare effects of new firm formation

This paper utilizes tax data to present the welfare effects of new ventures in Germany. Cohort analysis is applied to investigate survival of start-up firms, turnover, input, value added, and employment effects. Most drop-outs occur in the early stages of the firms. One Euro of turnover induces considerable indirect effects because 66 Cents are used to buy products and services from incumbents, while 34 Cent remain in the firm. Sectoral differences can also be observed. The manufacturing industry, especially its innovative parts, generates the highest value added and reveals highest expenses for inputs in the medium term.

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IfM-Materialien

Internationalisation of German SMEs. Results of an empirical survey

In the period from 2009 to 2011, some 1.3 million German enterprises (thereof 99% SMEs) were directly engaged in internationalisation activities. This equals to a share of 37% in the total number of enterprises (44% when also considering indirect forms of internationalisation).

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Daten und Fakten

Internationalisation of German SMEs: Scope of information provided by official data sources

Official statistical data sources cover the internationalisation activities of German enterprises only incompletely, both with regard to the different types of internationalisation and to their volumes. 

Abstract Full Version

Daten und Fakten

Internationalisation activities of German SMEs as reflected by official data sources

The international trade with goods and services is of large importance for German SMEs. Exports and imports have increased over the last decade to a similar degree as the number of internationally active enterprises.

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IfM-Materialien

Driving factors of innovation activities in family and non-family firms

Prior findings are inconclusive concerning the innovation activities of family SMEs when compared to non-family counterparts.

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External Publication

Determinants of Business Insolvencies During Economic Growth and Recession in Latvia

Apart from reasons influencing business insolvency in wellestablished market economies, such as company size and age, education, previous management experience and access to finance, specific environmental factors play an important role in determining companies’ insolvency within a transition setting. These include, but are not limited to, illegal and unethical forms of behavior. Empirically, the paper draws on 15 face-to-face interviews with insolvency administrators in Latvia conducted in 2007, and a repeated survey of the same respondents conducted in 2009.

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Daten und Fakten

Start-ups in the liberal professions in Germany in 2012

Based on statistical data provided by tax authorities, the number of business start-ups in the liberal professions has been specified for the first time. In 2012, approx. 82 000 start-ups have been recorded in the liberal professions. For 2013, a decreasing level of start-up activities is expected.

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External Publication

Entrepreneurial Business and Society

Entrepreneurial Business and Society analyses contemporary research in the field of entrepreneurship and small business and explores the interplay between the entrepreneur, the entrepreneurial firm and society.

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External Publication

Medium-sized enterprises in Germany

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External Publication

Gender identities and practices: Interpreting women entrepreneurs’ narratives

Previous research has shown that the discourse on womanhood is in conflict with that of entrepreneurship. This qualitative study examines how women construct their identities differently, finding that some of them perceive dissonance between womanhood and entrepreneurship discourses whereas others do not.

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External Publication

Nonlinear Evaluation of Status and Signal Effects

The paper uses German panel data to examine the effects of relative standing on individual satisfaction with the job, the propensity to change jobs, and intentions to start-up an enterprise in the near future. The relationship between relative wage positions and job satisfaction is inversely U-shaped.

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External Publication

Reenacting Contextual Boundaries-Entrepreneurial Resourcefulness in Challenging Environments

This article demonstrates that temporal, historical, socio-spatial, and institutional contexts are antecedents and boundaries for entrepreneurial behavior, while at the same time allowing for human agency.

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External Publication

Does the financial system affects early stage venture capital investments?

Improving access to finance is one of the key factors for increasing the number of innovative business start-ups with high growth potential. In this context, venture capitalists (VCs) have successfully dealt with the problems of financing innovative projects.

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External Publication

The Extent of Collective Bargaining and Workplace Representation: Transitions between States and their Determinants. A Comparative Analysis of Germany and Great Britain

The institutions of collective bargaining and worker representation are eroding in many nations, not least in Germany and Britain.

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External Publication

Collective Agreement Status and Survivability: Change and Persistence in the German Model

This paper assesses the decline in collective bargaining coverage in Germany. Using repeat cross-section and longitudinal data from the IAB Establishment Panel, it indicates the overwhelming importance of behavioural as opposed to compositional change in this process.

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External Publication

Engine of Success – The German Mid-Market under the Spotlight

As a follow-up of the study "Report for German Mid-Markets", Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn analyzed companies with an annual revenue from EUR 20 million up to EUR 1 billion in Germany conducted on behalf of GE Capital Deutschland. The aim is to gain a deep insight into the characteristics, factors of success and future challenges of the German mid.

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IfM-Materialien

Decentralisation and Networks

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IfM-Materialien

Retention of apprentices – analyses by enterprise size

This study investigates the current and future importance of vocational training to satisfy demand for professionals and whether small and medium-sized establishments experienced difficulties keeping successful apprentices as professionals.

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External Publication

Asymmetric information between outgoing and incoming owner - challenges and possible solutions, exemplified by management buy-ins into family businesses

Despite the increasing relevance of family-external succession in the form of a MBO or MBI, considerable research gaps with regard to these succession options exist. Even though information economics offers a promising perspective to extend our corresponding knowledge, it has not been sufficiently applied in that context.

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External Publication

Strategies and Policies to Support the Competitiveness of German Mittelstand Companies

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Daten und Fakten

The development of liberal professions in in the Federal State of Northrhine-Westphalia and its regions between 2002 and 2011

A sufficient supply of professional services provided by independent professionals like lawyers, physicians, engineers etc. is of essential importance for the efficient economic development of a region. Therefore, regional politics often encourage business activities in this economic sector.

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External Publication

Regional development of employed persons receiving Unemployment Benefit II in Germany

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External Publication

Repatriates as entrepreneurs? - A theoretical analysis

This contribution raises the question as to whether repatriates may pursue entrepreneurship and aims to theoretically determine if repatriates are particularly suitable candidates for venturing into self-employment. To address this research question, the Jack-of-all trades view and the human and social capital theories are employed.

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External Publication

Different Degrees of Informational Asymmetry on Job Markets and its Impact on Companies' Recruiting Success

Based on a large survey of German companies, we investigate the influence of job characteristics on the recruiting success on labor markets with different degrees of informational asymmetry. We cluster companies’ recruiting channels in those with low (internal job markets and employee referrals) and high (job advertisements, the Federal Employment Agency and headhunters) degrees of informational asymmetry. 

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IfM-Materialien

Job creation effects of exporting sme’s

The study shows that especially products - whose production is capital-intensive and characterised by large economies of scale - are suitable for foreign trade. Hence, in particular enterprises from the manufacturing and the distributive sector are engaged in export activities.

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Daten und Fakten

International turnover of branches dominated by liberal professions: the architects as an example - a comparison of different statistics

Official statistics with regard to internationalisation activities do not provide concise data on the liberal professions. Hence, there are no statistics which contain comprehensive data on the different types of internationalisation activities, enterprise sizes and legal forms.

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External Publication

My Wage is Unfair! Just a Feeling or Comparison with Peers?

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External Publication

EU Enlargement Effects on Cross-border Informal Entrepreneurial Activities

Borderlands, as spaces of various forms of entrepreneurial activities, offer rich examples of informal entrepreneurial activities that depend on the border location to be developed and sustained.

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External Publication

Major family businesses in Germany - 3rd update of key figures

The subject of the current study is the analysis of the balance sheet and P&L key figures of the major family businesses for the period 2008 to 2010. The study is based on the database created in autumn 2011 within the framework of the second update of key figures. Besides the development of the balance sheet and P&L data during and after the financial and economic crisis, the development of the turnover and employment figures of the major family businesses is also analysed. As balance sheet and P&L data is already available for around one quarter of the major family businesses for 2011, a solid estimate of the key figures examined is made for the 2011 financial year.

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External Publication

Differences between High Growth and Low Growth ICT Firms in Germany

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IfM-Materialien

Public support for company successions - necessity and policy design

The present study addresses the question what types of public support measures for company successions are offered in Germany and to what extent state support is necessary. In addition to a compilation of public support programmes, problems in company successions are analysed based on a literature review.

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External Publication

Regional and company-specific factors for high growth dynamics of ICT companies in Germany with particular emphasis on knowledge spillovers

Two hundred ICT companies based in Germany were interviewed to find out which regional and company specific factors may have a measurable direct impact on corporate growth.

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IfM-Materialien

International orientation of small and medium-sized businesses towards Eastern Europe - processes and locational effects for SMEs from Lower Saxony

The political and economic transformation and market opening in Central Eastern Europe (CEE) at the beginning of the 1990s as well as the EU enlargement gave reason for Western European firms in general and Western European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular to increase their activities in these countries.

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External Publication

Mayor family businesses in Germany - 2012 Autumn Survey

This study presents the results of the 2012 autumn survey of major family businesses with an annual turnover of over 50 million euros. As well as assessing the current and future economic situation and evaluating Germany as a place in which to do business, the survey focuses on the personnel policies of the major family businesses. Thus, in addition to the current problems with recruiting personnel, the study also looks at future personnel policy challenges and strategies in the major family businesses.

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IfM-Materialien

Analysis of the German Immigration System

German immigration policies aim at attracting highly-skilled foreigners from countries outside the European Union to tackle shortages of skilled labour in this country. The objective of the study is to identify innovative instruments for a selective steering of immigration.

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IfM-Materialien

Business succession in Germany - current trends

The last substantial, nationwide survey among German businesses with regard to the topic of ‘business succession’ took place back in 1989. Therefore, the strong need for more recent data emerged.

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IfM-Materialien

The relevance of short-time work for small and medium-sized businesses

This paper aims to describe various aspects of cyclical short-time work in Germany. At first, the empirical examination of officially available data reveals that large establishments with at least 500 employees utilize short-time work much more than smaller establishments.

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External Publication

Mayor family businesses in Germany - 2012 Spring Survey

This study presents the results of the 2012 Spring Survey of major family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros. The main emphasis of the survey is on the current and future economic situation and the principles guiding their management of the company. The financing structure, the activity of the advisory boards and company succession were also examined.

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IfM-Materialien

Start-ups in the liberal professions in Germany – Results of a first-time analysis of tax administration data

So far the business start-up statistics as compiled by IfM Bonn did not contain data with regard to "non-commercial" start-ups, especially in the liberal professions. In order to calculate the total number of start-ups in all economic sectors, IfM Bonn has analysed for the first time tax registration data of enterprise starters which are regularly collected by the tax administration in 15 Federal States.

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IfM-Materialien

Barriers and problems affecting immigrants' start-up activities

Even though immigrants have a higher propensity to start a business, we investigate if there are specific barriers and problems that negatively effect immigrants' start-up activities.

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IfM-Materialien

Innovation in SMEs – measurement and performance

The objective of this study is to assess the contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to innovation in Germany. The paper reviews the empirical literature on SMEs' innovation activities and conceptualises indicators to identify the key dimensions of innovation processes and outputs.

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External Publication

Slip Sliding Away: Further Union Decline in Germany and Britain

This paper presents the first comparative analysis of the decline in collective bargaining in two European countries where that decline has been among the most pronounced.

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External Publication

Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

This book analyses the role of government and policies in relation to the development of entrepreneurship and small businesses in Central and (South) Eastern European countries where entrepreneurship either was restricted to certain sectors and types of business as for example in Poland or Hungary, or was fully illegal until the late 1980s as in, for example, former Czechoslovakia or the Baltic States.

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