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External Publication

Driving factors of innovation in family and non-family SMEs

Abstract Prior findings are inconclusive concerning the innovation output of family and non-family SMEs. The study at hand takes one step back and examines the drivers of innovation output.

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Against Greenwashing: How upright CSR-players can protect themselves

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a promising management strategy but not yet free of risks. Opportunism such as greenwashing can hinder the success of enterprises involved in CSR in various ways.

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Innovativeness and business relationships in women-owned firms: The role of gender stereotypes

This paper investigates the relationship between business contacts and innovativeness in women-owned firms and how women entrepreneurs’ perception of gender stereotypes affects this relationship. Data were collected through a survey of 107 women entrepreneurs in Spain.

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The impact of curricular career orinentation and preparation programs on career choices of high school students.

Students' process of choosing an occupation and career path is of a significant importance, individually as well as socio-economically. Therefore there are lots of efforts made by several parties to inform young people about a preferably large scale of different occupational paths and to encourage them to make a well informed and reflected decision.

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Context and Entrepreneurial Cognition

All of us have an idea of context, however vague, but our perceptions on what constitutes context differ heavily: from very detailed to rather vague assumptions.

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Come on out of the ghetto, please - Building the future of entrepreneurship research

This essay makes the argument that previously marginalized but now flourishing subfields of entrepreneurship research continue to provide insights that can form the basis for future entrepreneurship research that is more broadly practical and critical.

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The interaction of equity crowdfunding platforms and ventures: an analysis of the preselection process

A growing number of young and emerging businesses obtain financial resources through open calls over the Internet. Such campaigns are often hosted on specialised platforms that serve as intermediaries between founders and potential funders. In recent years, equity crowdfunding platforms in particular have had remarkably high success rates in these published campaigns.

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Do unfair perceived own pay and top managers’ pay erode satisfaction with democracy?

Many people are relatively unsatisfied with the democratic system as it currently exists.

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The largest family businesses in Germany - update of key figures 2016

The study analyses the balance sheets and P&L statements of largest German family businesses (with at least 50 million Euro turnover per year) between 2012 and 2015. 

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Economic effects of the amendment to the HwO in 2004: Results from a quasinatural experiment

The amendment to the regulation of the craft sector in Germany in 2004 led to lower market entry barriers for a part of the craft sector.

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Women´s Entrepreneurship in Global and Local Contexts

The phenomenon of women´s entrepreneurship has gained significant momentum across the globe.

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Everyday Entrepreneurship A Call for Entrepreneurship Research to Embrace Entrepreneurial Diversity

The authors of the publication argue that a wider and nondiscriminatory perspective on what constitutes entrepreneurship will lead to better theory and more insights that are relevant to the phenomenon.

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Wandering between Contexts

There is a great variety of entrepreneurship which is not only influenced by the individual activities of the entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship is also affected by the contexts in which a business is started or run.

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Major family businesses in Germany - spring survey 2016 II

The study presents the results of the 2016 spring survey of major German family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros. This second chartbook focuses particularly on internationalisation of the these firms.

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The Challenges of Industry 4.0 for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

Despite the enormous economic potential of Industry 4.0 SMEs in industry remain relatively cautious about it. With regard to individual Industry 4.0 processes and technologies, however, it appears that across the board, regardless of company size and branch, little use is made of the evaluation of large data streams to optimise processes or for downstream services.

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Economies in a globalized world - Family businesses in Germany

As regards business activities, family businesses are commonly considered to behave more risk-averse than companies led by managers. In fact, they are willing to take risks.

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Destination: self-employment

The self-employment figures in Germany will likely stagnate or may even decline, given recent demographic changes. This development provides the impetus of this thesis. To counteract this, it needs to mitigate individuals’ reservations to take up entrepreneurial activity. This thesis argues that comprehensive information about the typical characteristics of foundings could sensitise individuals toward entrepreneurial activity, induce aspiring entrepreneurs to realise their entrepreneurial ambitions and, moreover, help to increase these foundings’ prospects of success.

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External Publication

Supporting Women Entrepreneurs in Germany

The report presents a brief overview of current and planned support for women’s entrepreneurship in Germany and provides an assessment of current and planned offerings in the areas of entrepreneurship skills, access to finance and the regulatory and institutional environment.

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Entrepreneur in Germany

Entrepreneurship has been linked to patriarchal families for a long time. But the history shows that it is not necessary to be born as an entrepreneur.

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Keeping It in The Family: Financial Rewards in Family Firms

Financial rewards in entrepreneurial families show specific characteristics: they are uncertain with regard to volume and timing; they are negotiable between the firm and the family; they are invisible because they include both cash and goods/services that can be consumed; and they are indivisible because family and business budgets are closely interlinked even if commonly seen as separate entities.

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SMEs, independent, family business: A clarification

For the affiliation of an enterprise to the Mittelstand his size is not decisive.

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Family Business and Regional Science: Bridging the gap

The article discusses not only the role family firms play within the region in order to enhance our understanding of the ways family firms may (or may not) contribute to regional economic development but also the effect of socio-spatial and institutional context on firm behavior and performance.

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Major family businesses in Germany - 6th update of key figures

The study analyses the balance sheets and P&L statements of major German family businesses between 2011 and 2013. It thereby shows the development of key figures such as turnover, employment, equity and debt ratios.

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Context, Process and Gender in Entrepreneurship

The book provides a particular focus on the behaviour between individuals and groups within different contexts; the personal and structural factors that shape entrepreneurial and small business activity; and a focus on gender in entrepreneurship within different contexts.

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Researching Trust in Different Cultures

Trust is not an ´objective´ phenomenon that can be measured easily and understood across cultures and countries. Trust, in particular its understanding and interpretation, is also a socially constructed and context-dependent phenomenon, which renders its measurement and empirical analysis difficult.

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External Publication

Engine of success - the German SME sector in focus

The researchers of Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn analysed and evaluated German mid market companies with an annual revenue of EUR 20 million up to EUR 1 billion. The study is conducted on commission of GE Capital Deutschland.

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BDI PwC SME Panel: Results of the online SME Survey - Spring 2015

Already for the 21st time, the IfM Bonn has asked a permanent group of industrial enterprises about their economic situations, topical and managerial issues. The Spring Survey 2015, that comprises 914 companies, lays focus upon the fourth industrial revolution.

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Developing entrepreneurial personality potentials - An empirical analysis in upper secondary education

The paper presents a planned intervention study in panel design that focusses on the development of entrepreneurial potential within a curricularly implemented entrpereneurhip education in German secondary schools. 

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Effort provision in entrepreneurial teams: effects of team size, free-riding and peer pressure

This paper analyzes whether effort provision in entrepreneurial teams depends on the size of the team, assuming that size determines the strength of free-riding and peer pressure effects in entrepreneurial teams.

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Value for Whom? Exploring the Value of Informal Entrepreneurial Activities in Post-Socialist Contexts

The analysis offers important insights on how three institutional logics – market, state and community – guide entrepreneurial action at the micro-level and affect value creation.

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The largest family businesses in Germany, data, facts, potential - spring survey 2015

The study presents the results of the 2015 Spring Survey of major family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros.

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The demise of a model? The state of collective bargaining and worker representation

This article investigates collective bargaining trends in the German private sector since 2000. Using data from the IAB Establishment Panel and the German Establishment History Panel, it provides both cross-sectional and longitudinal evidence on these developments.

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The Economic Contribution of Start-Up Firms in Germany

This paper utilizes German tax data to present evidence about the direct and indirect effcts of new firm formation. Cohort analysis is applied to investigate survival, sales, inputs, and value added of start-up firms. Most drop-outs occur in the early years.

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To influence the gender of the submitter to the choice of intra-household hereinafter

This paper examines the decision of female and male incumbents to choose a daughter or a son as successor and strives for answering the question, which factors determine this decision. Thereby, the main focus lies on the influence of incumbent’s gender. Different theoretical approaches give hints that the incumbent’s gender can have different impacts on this choice.

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Measuring the regulatory environment for SMEs – The case of Germany

In an increasingly complex global economy, the daily business activities of all enterprises are affected by a huge number of regulations in many different fields. This report provides an overview about the temporal and financial regulatory burdens, particularly of small and medium-sized enterprises.

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Family successors´ requirement profiles in the family business succession process

This article analyzes the requirements that family successors must fulfill to be considered suitable successors from three perspectives. We identify the recommended attributes and exigencies of family successors in the literature, generate a general requirement profile and compare this profile with predecessors’ expectations and successors’ perceptions of requirements based on data extracted from 106 interviews with 53 families. 

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Advancing theory development in venture creation: signposts for understanding gender

The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) shows that 126 million women in 67 economies started and managed businesses in 2012. 

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The Routledge Companion to Entrepreneurship

Research in entrepreneurship has been booming, with perspectives from a range of disciplines and numerous developing schools of thought. It can be difficult for young scholars and even long-time researchers to find their way through the lush garden of ideas we see before us.

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Demo offensiv – aggressive use of demographic change for the middle class

The demographic change causes a need for new approaches towards better work atmosphere and more trust in the workplace: this includes, among others, the visions and behavior of managers as well as education and training of workers on-the-job.

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Entrepreneurship in Emerging Market Economies: Contemporary Issues and Perspectives

Entrepreneurship increasingly is becoming a global phenomenon, although its nature, extent and contribution to economic development varies according to the context in which it occurs.

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Enterprising families in a cross-border context: the example of Belarus

This chapter explores the nature of simple entrepreneurial cross-border activity in one of the harshest environments for entrepreneurship in the world, namely Belarus, where private business activity is tolerated rather than encouraged. 

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From the advanced transition environment to the international markets: key opportunities and challenges for MADARA cosmetics

Due in large measure to its favourable geographical location, Latvia has historically attracted the interest of many countries, mostly in the neighbouring area. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Latvia regained its independence and became a parliamentary republic on 21 August 1991.

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On the way to gender-specific models for entrepreneurship research

The number of female entrepreneurs is growing rapidly all over the world as they make an essential contribution to employment, innovation and the economic growth. 

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Women and Work

North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) is one of the leading economic regions in Europe. 22.1% of Germany's gross domestic product is generated here. Furthermore around 761,000 (99.6%) small and medium enterprises dominate the industry in NRW. It's importance is reflected not only in the key sectors of energy, chemicals, metal and the automotive industry, but also in business services.

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Engine of Success – The German Mid-Market under the Spotlight

The researcher of Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn have analysed and evaluated mid market companies with an annual revenue of between EUR 20 million and EUR 1 billion in Germany for the study "Engine of Success – The German Mid-Market under the Spotlight" conducted on commission by GE Capital Deutschland.

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The Effect of Working Time Preferences and Fair Wage Perceptions on Entrepreneurial Intentions among Employees

To date, little is known about how working time preferences and fair wage perceptions affect employees’ entrepreneurial intentions. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study, we provide first evidence that the difference between the actual and desired amount of working hours in paid employment is positively related to the propensity to switch to self-employment.

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Why the Self-Employed are happier: Evidence from 25 European Countries

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My Wage is Unfair! Just a Feeling or Comparison with Peers?

This paper analyzes the nexus between income comparisons and perceptions of unfair pay. We apply a large German household survey and conduct wage regressions to conclude whether individuals who perceive their wages as unfair earn significantly lower wages than fairly paid individuals with similar characteristics.

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Social sustainability of cooperatives in traditional crafts

The project "Social sustainability of community Co-operatives in traditional handcraft" focusses on the function and the working processes of community-based and foundation-based Co-operatives in traditional textile handcrafts in rural berber regions around Marrakesh with a special consideration of the regional cultural context. 

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How Exactly Do Network Relationships Pay Off? The Effects of Network Size and Relationship Quality on Access to Start-Up Resources

Entrepreneurs are expected to profit from network relationships. Research addressing the link between entrepreneurs' network characteristics and their performance, however, has so far produced inconclusive results. 

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From idea to publication: managing the research process

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Contextualizing Entrepreneurship - Conceptual Challenges and Ways Forward

There is growing recognition in entrepreneurship research that economic behavior can be better understood within its historical, temporal, institutional, spatial, and social contexts, as these contexts provide individuals with opportunities and set boundaries for their actions.

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The student company. Didactic Guide for starting a business

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Dynamics in ICT cooperation networks in selected German ICT Clusters

High innovation capability is indispensable for generating economic growth in developed economies. Cooperations in the innovation process are entered into by companies for reasons of risk diversification or costs and often considered to be an efficient strategy to increase a company’s knowledge basis.

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Costs of bureaucracy in SME

The smaller a company is, the more time it spends on dealing with regulatory tasks. From a macroeconomic view, however, it is important to create positive conditions for any company size.

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Determinants of Business Insolvencies During Economic Growth and Recession in Latvia

Apart from reasons influencing business insolvency in wellestablished market economies, such as company size and age, education, previous management experience and access to finance, specific environmental factors play an important role in determining companies’ insolvency within a transition setting. These include, but are not limited to, illegal and unethical forms of behavior. Empirically, the paper draws on 15 face-to-face interviews with insolvency administrators in Latvia conducted in 2007, and a repeated survey of the same respondents conducted in 2009.

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Entrepreneurial Business and Society

Entrepreneurial Business and Society analyses contemporary research in the field of entrepreneurship and small business and explores the interplay between the entrepreneur, the entrepreneurial firm and society.

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Medium-sized enterprises in Germany

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Gender identities and practices: Interpreting women entrepreneurs’ narratives

Previous research has shown that the discourse on womanhood is in conflict with that of entrepreneurship. This qualitative study examines how women construct their identities differently, finding that some of them perceive dissonance between womanhood and entrepreneurship discourses whereas others do not.

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Nonlinear Evaluation of Status and Signal Effects

The paper uses German panel data to examine the effects of relative standing on individual satisfaction with the job, the propensity to change jobs, and intentions to start-up an enterprise in the near future. The relationship between relative wage positions and job satisfaction is inversely U-shaped.

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Reenacting Contextual Boundaries-Entrepreneurial Resourcefulness in Challenging Environments

This article demonstrates that temporal, historical, socio-spatial, and institutional contexts are antecedents and boundaries for entrepreneurial behavior, while at the same time allowing for human agency.

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Does the financial system affects early stage venture capital investments?

Improving access to finance is one of the key factors for increasing the number of innovative business start-ups with high growth potential. In this context, venture capitalists (VCs) have successfully dealt with the problems of financing innovative projects.

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The Extent of Collective Bargaining and Workplace Representation: Transitions between States and their Determinants. A Comparative Analysis of Germany and Great Britain

The institutions of collective bargaining and worker representation are eroding in many nations, not least in Germany and Britain.

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Collective Agreement Status and Survivability: Change and Persistence in the German Model

This paper assesses the decline in collective bargaining coverage in Germany. Using repeat cross-section and longitudinal data from the IAB Establishment Panel, it indicates the overwhelming importance of behavioural as opposed to compositional change in this process.

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Engine of Success – The German Mid-Market under the Spotlight

As a follow-up of the study "Report for German Mid-Markets", Institut für Mittelstandsforschung (IfM) Bonn analyzed companies with an annual revenue from EUR 20 million up to EUR 1 billion in Germany conducted on behalf of GE Capital Deutschland. The aim is to gain a deep insight into the characteristics, factors of success and future challenges of the German mid.

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Asymmetric information between outgoing and incoming owner - challenges and possible solutions, exemplified by management buy-ins into family businesses

Despite the increasing relevance of family-external succession in the form of a MBO or MBI, considerable research gaps with regard to these succession options exist. Even though information economics offers a promising perspective to extend our corresponding knowledge, it has not been sufficiently applied in that context.

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Strategies and Policies to Support the Competitiveness of German Mittelstand Companies

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Regional development of employed persons receiving Unemployment Benefit II in Germany

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Repatriates as entrepreneurs? - A theoretical analysis

This contribution raises the question as to whether repatriates may pursue entrepreneurship and aims to theoretically determine if repatriates are particularly suitable candidates for venturing into self-employment. To address this research question, the Jack-of-all trades view and the human and social capital theories are employed.

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Different Degrees of Informational Asymmetry on Job Markets and its Impact on Companies' Recruiting Success

Based on a large survey of German companies, we investigate the influence of job characteristics on the recruiting success on labor markets with different degrees of informational asymmetry. We cluster companies’ recruiting channels in those with low (internal job markets and employee referrals) and high (job advertisements, the Federal Employment Agency and headhunters) degrees of informational asymmetry. 

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My Wage is Unfair! Just a Feeling or Comparison with Peers?

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EU Enlargement Effects on Cross-border Informal Entrepreneurial Activities

Borderlands, as spaces of various forms of entrepreneurial activities, offer rich examples of informal entrepreneurial activities that depend on the border location to be developed and sustained.

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Major family businesses in Germany - 3rd update of key figures

The subject of the current study is the analysis of the balance sheet and P&L key figures of the major family businesses for the period 2008 to 2010. The study is based on the database created in autumn 2011 within the framework of the second update of key figures. Besides the development of the balance sheet and P&L data during and after the financial and economic crisis, the development of the turnover and employment figures of the major family businesses is also analysed. As balance sheet and P&L data is already available for around one quarter of the major family businesses for 2011, a solid estimate of the key figures examined is made for the 2011 financial year.

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Differences between High Growth and Low Growth ICT Firms in Germany

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Regional and company-specific factors for high growth dynamics of ICT companies in Germany with particular emphasis on knowledge spillovers

Two hundred ICT companies based in Germany were interviewed to find out which regional and company specific factors may have a measurable direct impact on corporate growth.

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Mayor family businesses in Germany - 2012 Autumn Survey

This study presents the results of the 2012 autumn survey of major family businesses with an annual turnover of over 50 million euros. As well as assessing the current and future economic situation and evaluating Germany as a place in which to do business, the survey focuses on the personnel policies of the major family businesses. Thus, in addition to the current problems with recruiting personnel, the study also looks at future personnel policy challenges and strategies in the major family businesses.

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Mayor family businesses in Germany - 2012 Spring Survey

This study presents the results of the 2012 Spring Survey of major family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros. The main emphasis of the survey is on the current and future economic situation and the principles guiding their management of the company. The financing structure, the activity of the advisory boards and company succession were also examined.

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Slip Sliding Away: Further Union Decline in Germany and Britain

This paper presents the first comparative analysis of the decline in collective bargaining in two European countries where that decline has been among the most pronounced.

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Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policies in Central and Eastern Europe

This book analyses the role of government and policies in relation to the development of entrepreneurship and small businesses in Central and (South) Eastern European countries where entrepreneurship either was restricted to certain sectors and types of business as for example in Poland or Hungary, or was fully illegal until the late 1980s as in, for example, former Czechoslovakia or the Baltic States.

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