IfM-Materialien

In the IfM-Materialien, you find the results from the IfM research projects.

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IfM-Materialien

Migrant-led family businesses

Migrant-led family enterprises are an important economic entity: They constitute 10 % of all family firms in Germany and make an important contribution to the labour market integration of the migrant population by employing a higher than average percentage of migrants.

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IfM-Materialien

Academic Entrepreneurship

We examine the entrepreneurial process and success by following researchers over a three year time horizon. Only one out of six individuals with an entrepreneurial idea founded a business within the observed time period.

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IfM-Materialien

Kooperationen zwischen etabliertem Mittelstand und Start-ups

The study examines motives, forms, challenges and success factors of cooperations between start-ups and established Mittelstand firms.

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IfM-Materialien

Innovation and Growth as Challenges for the German Mittelstand – Updated Views from Entrepreneurs in 2017

In order to safeguard its competitiveness, the German Mittelstand mainly relies on innovation and growth. This is a key result of the enterprise survey with regard to future challenges for the Mittelstand.

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IfM-Materialien

Disruptive Innovations: Chances and Risks for the German Mittelstand

This study investigates the handling of established small and medium-sized companies with increasingly emerging disruptive developments. The majority evaluates its own business model as well prepared for the future. However, the own business model is only critically questioned if problems are already no-ticeable.

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IfM-Materialien

The macroeconomic importance of owner- and family-led enterprises

The present study analyses how the percentage share of owner- and family-led enterprises in the total number of all enterprises has changed since the reporting year 1998. Therefore, approx.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

The Future Panel on SMEs 2017 – An updated Expert Survey on the Challenges for the German Mittelstand

Digital transformation is a challenge for the Mittelstand which affects many different management and policy fields. This is a key result of the current expert survey for the Mittelstand future panel 2017.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Global networks, co-operation and value production in the German Mittelstand

Based on theoretical analyses and additional in-depth expert interviews, the present study investigates the challenges and opportunities faced by Mittelstand companies when participating in (global) value chains.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Entrepreneurial behaviour in the course of business succession

Using data of the IAB-establishment panel, the paper analyses entrepreneurial behaviour before and after business succession and how this behaviour affects the economic situation of the enterprises being handed over.

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IfM-Materialien

Business Process Digitization of SME in the Manufacturing Sector

This study empirically examines the degree to which companies digitized their business processes. The investigation is based on a representative sample covering 1,400 firms in the manufacturing sector in North Rhine-Westphalia, Bavaria, and Baden-Wuerttemberg.

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IfM-Materialien

"Mittelstand" Policies in practice - Business framework policy or funding policy?

This study elaborates elements of a future-oriented policy targeting the Mittelstand and addresses the German Länder as policy actors.

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"The 21st century is female" – Women Entrepreneurs in the daily press

The present study examines how the daily press in Germany contributes to presenting and spreading role models for women entrepreneurs.

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IfM-Materialien

Once entrepreneur, forever entrepreneur? Self-employment during the course of working life

The present study analyses the employment biographies of self-employed of different birth cohorts. The results show that most self-employed have only one self-employment episode in their life and a great percentage of them remains permanently self-employed.

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IfM-Materialien

Major family businesses in Germany - spring survey 2016

The study presents the results of the 2016 spring survey of major German family businesses with an annual turnover of more than 50 million euros.

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IfM-Materialien

"Mittelstand" Policies in Change

The German Mittelstand has been undergoing considerable change for several years now. In the light of a new self-perception of the Mittelstand, policies targeting the Mittelstand should adjust accordingly.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Fast growing businesses in Germany: The characteristics and determinants of their growth

On the basis of survey data, this study analyses the pivotal characteristics of fast growing firms with 10 employees at minimum as well as the determinants of their growth. The smaller ones, companies at the early stages of the life cycle and the ones located in the manufacturing sector belong to this specific group of companies.

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IfM-Materialien

Commercial exploitation of inventions among academics at German institutions of higher education

University-level institutions are an important source of innovations. However, there are a lot of inventions of academics at German universities, which are not transferred into a commercial use. We analysed how academics' characteristics, working conditions, and the institutional context affect the likelihood to innovate and commercialize their inventions.

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IfM-Materialien

Financial structures and financing strategies of German SMEs

The financial environment for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is changing. The general good economic situation, the current policy on low interest rates and new banking regulations affect the capital structure of German SMEs.

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IfM-Materialien

Entrepreneurship and Crowdinvesting

Equity-crowdinvesting was launched in Germany in the year 2011. This funding source enables young and emerging businesses to gather funding by addressing numerous private investors via an open-call. Our examination of 163 funding rounds reveals that the German crowdinvesting market sharply increased in the first years.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Relevance of the Digitalization for the German Mittelstand

The study on predominantly small- and medium-sized companies reveals that they are highly aware of the relevance of digitalization. International-oriented companies attach even more importance to digitalization.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Sales growth and growth thresholds in German firms

The description of sales growth and possible growth thresholds is the main objective of this study. Smaller firms are shown to grow at a faster rate than larger ones.

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Young firm growth dynamics– a longitudinal analysis with German sales tax data

We study the growth patterns of newly founded firms in their first seven years based on the German Turnover Tax Statistics Panel 2001-2010.

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IfM-Materialien

The Future Panel on SMEs – Challenges for the German Mittelstand from the Entrepreneurs' Point of View

This paper complements our expert survey on the challenges for the German Mittelstand in 2014 (The IfM Bonn Future Panel on SMEs) by taking into consideration the entrepreneurs' point of view.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Opportunities and risks of CSR for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

The study highlights both the opportunities and risks related to the application of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) as a corporate strategy. The analysis identifies a number of risks such as greenwashing, systemizing its forms and manifestations and categorizing them.

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IfM-Materialien

Business development of large family and non-family enterprises – an analysis of financial statement data between 2008 and 2012

In general, family businesses are often supposed to have a bigger share in the stabilisation of the economic development in Germany after the last financial crisis than non-family businesses. Our study examines this hypothesis with regard to large family enterprises, using a self-generated database, which also allows for comparisons with large non-family businesses.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

German Mittelstand - Between Facts and Perceptions

In recent years, the entrepreneurial landscape has been subject to structural change which also impacts on the German Mittelstand. This study explores key characteristics of the Mittelstand, drawing on a business survey.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Mittelstand Companion and Promotor of Structural Change

The term "Mittelstand" is a typical German label for a large part of the German enterprise population. Outside German-speaking countries, the term "SME" is more frequently used instead. Do both terms describe the same phenomenon? We analyze the terms and definitions of Mittelstand and SME as well as enterprise, entrepreneur and self-employment which are fundamental for the understanding of Mittelstand.

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IfM-Materialien

Individual and Structural Influences on the Entrepreneurial Activities of Scientists in German Universities

Knowledge of great commercial value is unexploited in universities. Thus, policy makers have started to foster knowledge transfer activities by incentivizing academic entrepreneurship. To date, however, little is known whether the incentives provided so far by the universities have raised the start-up inclination of their scientific staff.

Abstract Executive Summary Full Version

IfM-Materialien

The Impact of the Employment History on Women's Start-up Activities

Despite a steady increase in the number of self-employed women, the so-called gender gap has hardly diminished. Based on the National Educational Panel Study (NEPS), the present study analyses if and to which extent, family-induced employment breaks – which from a theoretical perspective go along with a loss of human capital – explain women's lower start-up propensities.

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

The Future Panel on SMEs – An Expert Survey on the Challenges for the German Mittelstand

Changing demographics, globalization, scarcity of resources, climate change and dynamic technology and innovation will affect small and medium sized enterprises in Germany (Mittelstand companies). In order to identify and evaluate actual challenges and upcoming topics an internet-based survey of experts which comprised representatives of politics, business and academia – the so called IfM Bonn Future Panel on SMEs – was conducted.

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IfM-Materialien

Incomes of self-employed and claiming of public benefits based on Social Code II

This study investigates the income of self-employed based on the panel "Labour Markets and Social Security” of the Institute of Employment Research, Nuremberg. The analysis focuses on the socio-economic characteristics of self-employed and attempts to explain why some of them are entitled to a means-tested benefit called Unemployment Benefit II.

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IfM-Materialien

Concepts and Effects of Sustainable Management

Sustainability aims at a responsible use of natural resources and the environment as well as at shaping corporate relations and restructuring the constitution of the firm. 

Abstract Full Version

IfM-Materialien

Gender, Innovation and Firm Performance

In innovation research, there is a wide-spread notion that women in general and women entrepreneurs in particular are less innovative than their male counterparts. This is often associated with a weaker performance of women-led firms. Our study shows that this notion is based on a limited definition and examination of innovation. 

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IfM-Materialien

SMEs in the Information and Communication Sector in North Rhine-Westphalia

The objective of the study is to analyse the ICT sector in North Rhine-Westphalia, using the most recent census data available as well as the results of an own survey. This German federal state proves to be the home of a mainly prosperous ICT firm-population. 

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IfM-Materialien

Welfare effects of new firm formation

This paper utilizes tax data to present the welfare effects of new ventures in Germany. Cohort analysis is applied to investigate survival of start-up firms, turnover, input, value added, and employment effects. Most drop-outs occur in the early stages of the firms. One Euro of turnover induces considerable indirect effects because 66 Cents are used to buy products and services from incumbents, while 34 Cent remain in the firm. Sectoral differences can also be observed. The manufacturing industry, especially its innovative parts, generates the highest value added and reveals highest expenses for inputs in the medium term.

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IfM-Materialien

Internationalisation of German SMEs. Results of an empirical survey

In the period from 2009 to 2011, some 1.3 million German enterprises (thereof 99% SMEs) were directly engaged in internationalisation activities. This equals to a share of 37% in the total number of enterprises (44% when also considering indirect forms of internationalisation).

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IfM-Materialien

Driving factors of innovation activities in family and non-family firms

Prior findings are inconclusive concerning the innovation activities of family SMEs when compared to non-family counterparts.

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IfM-Materialien

Decentralisation and Networks

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IfM-Materialien

Retention of apprentices – analyses by enterprise size

This study investigates the current and future importance of vocational training to satisfy demand for professionals and whether small and medium-sized establishments experienced difficulties keeping successful apprentices as professionals.

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IfM-Materialien

Job creation effects of exporting sme’s

The study shows that especially products - whose production is capital-intensive and characterised by large economies of scale - are suitable for foreign trade. Hence, in particular enterprises from the manufacturing and the distributive sector are engaged in export activities.

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IfM-Materialien

Public support for company successions - necessity and policy design

The present study addresses the question what types of public support measures for company successions are offered in Germany and to what extent state support is necessary. In addition to a compilation of public support programmes, problems in company successions are analysed based on a literature review.

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IfM-Materialien

International orientation of small and medium-sized businesses towards Eastern Europe - processes and locational effects for SMEs from Lower Saxony

The political and economic transformation and market opening in Central Eastern Europe (CEE) at the beginning of the 1990s as well as the EU enlargement gave reason for Western European firms in general and Western European small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in particular to increase their activities in these countries.

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IfM-Materialien

Analysis of the German Immigration System

German immigration policies aim at attracting highly-skilled foreigners from countries outside the European Union to tackle shortages of skilled labour in this country. The objective of the study is to identify innovative instruments for a selective steering of immigration.

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IfM-Materialien

Business succession in Germany - current trends

The last substantial, nationwide survey among German businesses with regard to the topic of ‘business succession’ took place back in 1989. Therefore, the strong need for more recent data emerged.

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IfM-Materialien

The relevance of short-time work for small and medium-sized businesses

This paper aims to describe various aspects of cyclical short-time work in Germany. At first, the empirical examination of officially available data reveals that large establishments with at least 500 employees utilize short-time work much more than smaller establishments.

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IfM-Materialien

Start-ups in the liberal professions in Germany – Results of a first-time analysis of tax administration data

So far the business start-up statistics as compiled by IfM Bonn did not contain data with regard to "non-commercial" start-ups, especially in the liberal professions. In order to calculate the total number of start-ups in all economic sectors, IfM Bonn has analysed for the first time tax registration data of enterprise starters which are regularly collected by the tax administration in 15 Federal States.

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IfM-Materialien

Barriers and problems affecting immigrants' start-up activities

Even though immigrants have a higher propensity to start a business, we investigate if there are specific barriers and problems that negatively effect immigrants' start-up activities.

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IfM-Materialien

Innovation in SMEs – measurement and performance

The objective of this study is to assess the contribution of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to innovation in Germany. The paper reviews the empirical literature on SMEs' innovation activities and conceptualises indicators to identify the key dimensions of innovation processes and outputs.

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