In the years 2007 to 2016, foreign citizens increasingly influenced the start-up activities in Germany as well as in Northrhine-Westfalia. Foreign founders played a prominent role in the trade and a lesser one in the liberal professions. Further analyses based on the business registration statistic show that only citizens of the eastern and central European countries which entered the European Union in 2004 and 2007 could register rising numbers of start-ups whereas the start-up activities of the remaining foreign citizens were declining as well as the start-up activities of German citizens. Foreigners started their businesses more often in construction and less often in the service sector than Germans. Their start-ups are of less economic substance than the start-ups of Germans. These differences between start-ups of foreigners and Germans are again mainly due to the citizens of the mentioned EU entry states. Since 2014, however, their share in the start-up activities in the trade is declining.
Günterberg, B.; Kay, R. (2018): Existenzgründungen von ausländischen Staatsbürgern: Aktualisierung 2018, IfM Bonn: Daten und Fakten Nr. 20, Bonn.