Existing research stresses the strong need to take structural differences of enterprises and different characteristics of entrepreneurs or managers into account when gender related aspects of firm development are analyzed. However, it is still largely unclear to what extent men-led and women-led enterprises differ not only with regard to their entrepreneurial strategies and aims but also with respect to the individual attitudes and motives pursued by their managing directors. Against this background, the paper seeks to identify possible differences between women-led and men-led enterprises particularly with regard to strategies and attitudes of their managers. The results show that women-led enterprises are not likely to have a stronger focus on social, ecological or corporate responsibility issues than men-led enterprises. Regarding the differences between men- and women-led enterprises, the findings of the paper also provide additional support for previous research that stresses the impact of economic and environmental factors on company performance rather than the particular sex of the business owner or manager.
Pahnke, A.; Ettl, K.; Welter, F. (2018): Women-led enterprises in Germany: the more social, ecological and corporate responsible businesses? In: Ratten, V.; Dana, L.-P.; Ramadani (Hrsg.): Women Entrepreneurship in Family Business, Routledge Frontiers of Management, Band 15, S. 46-62.